Dec 14, 2021 Uncategorized

Environmental class Assignment at an Affordable Cost

What are the factors determining food security? (Check all that apply.)

Question 1 options:

food availability
food utilization
food access
food production
food demand

Question 2 (4 points)

Using a combination of biological, chemical and cultural methods to control pests is referred to as:

Question 2 options:

biological control.
integrated pest management.
scout-and-spray.
biological magnification.
resistance management.

Question 3 (10 points)

Carrying Capacity:    Expert’s estimates for the carrying capacity of the human population differ widely. Briefly explain the concept of carrying capacity. Why is it so difficult to determine the carrying capacity for the human population? Briefly discuss two reasons.    Please answer in less than 100 words.    (10 points)

Question 3 options:

Question 4 (4 points)   The biotic environment includes a variety of components including: Question 4 options: a) secondary consumers. b) protozoa. c) primary producers. d) decomposers. e) All of these choices are correct Question 5 (4 points)   What does the term “abiotic factors” refer to? Question 5 options: Factors affecting only plants Physical and chemical factors in the environment Factors affecting only detritus feeders and decomposers Factors affecting only microorganisms Factors that cause diseases, especially bacteria Question 6 (4 points)   All of the following are traits used as a defense by plants against herbivores EXCEPT: Question 6 options: assembling in groups. toxins. spines or thorns. thick wax layer. noxious chemicals. Question 7 (4 points)   In a mutualistic relationship, mycorrhizae help plants: Question 7 options: to absorb water. to convert atmospheric nitrogen into nitrates. to repel insects. to resist disease organisms. to absorb essential nutrient minerals. Question 8 (4 points)   All of the following are true about habitat restoration EXCEPT: Question 8 options: Habitat restoration aims at reversing ecosystem degradation. Habitat restoration often focuses on keystone species. Habitat restoration can be effective in reversing extinction. Dam removal can be effective to restore stream and river ecosystems. Habitat restoration can be effective for protecting biodiversity in the long-term. Question 9 (4 points)   Which of the following does not involve solar energy? Question 9 options: wind farms geothermal energy fossil fuels hydropower biomass combustion Question 10 (4 points)   Which three factors affect the global potential for using renewable energy sources to produce electricity? (Check the three factors that apply.) Question 10 options: average fuel economy standards availability of land suitable for energy generation past global energy consumption rates efficiency of energy conversion technology costs associated with utilizing the energy source Question 11 (4 points)   The atmosphere consists of five concentric layers. What is the order of these layers starting at the Earth’s surface? Question 11 options: 12345 Troposphere 12345 Exosphere 12345 Mesosphere 12345 Thermosphere 12345 Stratosphere Question 12 (4 points)   Weather is a term that refers to the conditions in the atmosphere on a ________ basis; whereas, climate is a description of ___________weather conditions. Question 12 options: hourly or daily; average, long-term permanent; temporary global; local stable; unstable long-term; short-term Question 13 (4 points)   The long-term fluctuations in described by the Milankovitch cycles are due to: Question 13 options: Oscillations in the earth’s orbit A change in the output of solar energy from the sun Periodic changes in the amount of cloud cover Destruction of the ozone layer Volcanic eruptions Question 14 (4 points)   What are natural drivers of climate change? (Check all that apply.) Question 14 options: Changes in the earth’s orbit. Variations in solar intensity. Livestock farming Deforestation Volcanic eruptions Question 15 (4 points)   Volcanoes have typically what effect on the climate? Question 15 options: They promote long-term changes of the climate. They cool the climate due to creating a haze-effect. They warm the climate by releasing large amounts of heat that is trapped. They cool the climate by releasing carbon dioxide and water vapor. They do not affect the climate, only the weather. Question 16 (4 points)   Warmer temperatures leading to greater evaporation and higher concentration of atmospheric water vapor which leads to warmer air and ocean temperatures is an example of: Question 16 options: negative feedback infrared radiation UV radiation greenhouse gases positive feedback Question 17 (4 points)   Warmer temperatures leading to melting of permafrost and release of carbon dioxide and methane which leads to warmer air and ocean temperatures is an example of: Question 17 options: negative feedback infrared radiation UV radiation greenhouse gases positive feedback Question 18 (4 points)   Warmer ocean temperatures leading to the melting of sea ice which would otherwise reflect sunlight back into space which leads to additional increases in ocean temperatures is an example of: Question 18 options: negative feedback infrared radiation UV radiation greenhouse gases positive feedback Question 19 (4 points)   Which U.S. environmental law addresses solid waste? Question 19 options: Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Superfund Act Pollution Prevention Act Occupational Safety and Health Act Toxic Substances Control Act Question 20 (4 points)   Which U.S. environmental law addresses abandoned hazardous waste sites? Question 20 options: Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act Pollution Prevention Act Oil Pollution Act Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Toxic Substances Control Act Question 21 (4 points)   All of the following are major categories of hazardous waste EXCEPT: Question 21 options: acids heavy metals organic solvents radioactive waste sewage Question 22 (4 points)   A good example of source reduction would be: Question 22 options: burning old tires to generate usable energy. finding uses for discarded computers and other high technology equipment. the lighter weight of aluminum cans compared to 30 years ago. installing air pollution control devices in incinerators. increasing the percentage of paper, glass, and aluminum that is recycled in the United States. Question 23 (4 points)   Which of the following would best describe an ecological economist’s view of the economy? Question 23 options: You cannot put a dollar value on environmental protection. The environment needs to be protected regardless of the dollar cost. The human economy is independent of the environment. Economic growth is constrained by the limits of environmental resources. Environmental protection is not necessary for economic growth. Question 24 (4 points)   In perfect markets, the point at which marginal benefit equals marginal cost is where: Question 24 options: external costs are not included. net benefits are maximized. marginal cost are zero. net benefits are minimized. none of the above. Question 25 (4 points)   In the field of economics, the additional cost associated with one more unit of something is called a(n): Question 25 options: marginal cost. external cost. direct cost. fringe cost. total product cost. Question 26 (4 points)   As a result of energy subsidies: Question 26 options: consumer fuel costs have increased. cars have become more fuel efficient. there is less incentive to conserve energy. externalities are included in the cost of fuel. fuels are only cheaper for federal agencies. Question 27 (4 points)   A journalist reports on what Hardin (1968) referred to as a “tragedy of the commons”? The media story concerns: Question 27 options: a disaster that happened in the park the environmental costs that everyone must pay in the long run due to individual exploitation of resources for short-term gains the technology divide that exists between the social classes of poverty and elite the environmental costs that a widespread natural disaster brings to all walks of life common understanding of the environmental pressures that threaten endangered species Question 28 (4 points)   According to the EPA’s Draft Report on the Environment 2003, levels of wet sulfate, a major component of acid rain, have dropped by 20-30% since 1990. This success may be attributed to: Question 28 options: National Environmental Policy Act (1970) Toxic Substances Control Act (1976) Clean Water Act Earth Day 1990 (Think globally, act locally) Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 Question 29 (4 points)   Which U.S. environmental law addresses solid waste? Question 29 options: Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Superfund Act Pollution Prevention Act Occupational Safety and Health Act Toxic Substances Control Act Question 30 (4 points)   What best describes the term “Anthropocene”? Question 30 options: The geological time period during which fossil fuels were formed, on which modern human development depends. The most recent geological time period in which human activity is the most significant factor driving environmental change. The geological age at which the human species – homo sapiens – first evolved. The upcoming age of transitioning to sustainable society with development based on low-carbon energy. The time period spanning the last 400 000 years marked by natural fluctuations in climate. Question 31 (4 points)   A sudden, nonlinear change in a system with often irreversible consequences is called: Question 31 options: Peak Tipping point Critical point Population crash Turn-around point Point of no return Question 32 (4 points)   What factors contribute to the Colony Collapse Disorder that threatens bees? (Check all that apply). Question 32 options: Virus infection Fungal infection Pesticide application Habitat destruction Polyculture Question 33 (4 points)   What is a valid conclusion given the following data?   Developing Countries Highly Developed Countries Percentage of urban inhabitants in 2004 44% 74% Gender of urban inhabitants Higher ratio of 
males to females Higher ratio of 
females to males Rate of urban growth High Low Challenges of urban development High High Megacities Many Many Question 33 options: Urbanization of developing countries is better than that of highly developed countries Urbanization is a worldwide phenomenon. Cities in highly developed and developing countries face the same challenges. Megacities are an artifact of highly developed countries. The gender distribution in cities worldwide is the same. Question 34 (4 points)   Many major U.S. cities face similar problems. These include all of the following EXCEPT: Question 34 options: traffic congestion suburban sprawl urban renewal forcing the poor out of neighborhoods compact development school funding issues Question 35 (4 points)   Sustainable urban development, ideally, involves: (Check all that apply.) Question 35 options: green space recycling urban farmers solar energy large single family lots Question 36 (4 points)   Modeling new material properties on those found in nature is termed: Question 36 options: sustainable design nature design biomimicry ecological engineering nature modelling Question 37 (4 points)   What should a sustainable building NOT be? Question 37 options: ecological responsible healthy socially segregated physically and economically accessible energy efficient Question 38 (4 points)   All of the following are considered a part of a city’s infrastructure EXCEPT: Question 38 options: roads department stores garbage disposal electric grid water treatment plants Question 39 (4 points)   What is an example of low impact cluster development? Question 39 options: Suburban community with large individual lot sizes and single family mansions Agricultural area with farms and fields spread out over a large square mileage Multi-family residential units grouped together surrounded by community gardens and parks Townhome community with spread out individual lots High rises grouped without leaving open space in inner city areas Question 40 (4 points)   A patchwork of vacant and developed tracts around the edges of cities that contain a low population density is considered: Question 40 options: smart growth sustainable development green architecture suburban sprawl compact development Question 41 (4 points)   Compact development benefits the environment in all of the following ways EXCEPT: Question 41 options: reversing the trend towards urbanization. reducing air pollution. preserving rural areas. utilizing brownfields, rather than natural habitats, for further development. minimizing the reliance on personal motor vehicles. Question 42 (4 points)   A brownfield is an urban area of: Question 42 options: vacant house lots that are overgrown with weeds and vegetation parking lot pavement that collects heat during the day and emits heat at night meadows that are earmarked for industrial development sports arenas for baseball, football, and soccer abandoned, vacant factories, warehouses, and residential sites that may be contaminated from past uses Question 43 (4 points)   Transportation has affected the spatial structures of cities because as cities grow: Question 43 options: a grid must be maintained for street development. a plan must be in place to evenly distribute the accumulation of heat from automobile use. they expand along public transportation routes. they expand in the direction of waterways. the dependence on transportation is lessened. Question 44 (4 points)   Saved What does NOT affect the walkability of a city? Question 44 options: presence of pedestrian right-of-ways land use and zoning energy efficiency traffic and road conditions building accessibility Question 45 (4 points)   What is NOT a best practice for stormwater management in cities? Question 45 options: Rain gardens and natural landscaping Collection and reuse of rainwater Naturalized detention basins Higher percentage of impermeable surfaces Green roofs Question 46 (4 points)   The practice of designing and constructing environmentally responsible and resource-efficient buildings is called: Question 46 options: friendly construction green building new age building passive design ecology construction Question 47 (4 points)   Which of the following does not represent a green architecture feature? (Check all that apply.) Question 47 options: using recycled building materials triple-pane windows motion sensors linked to lights in classrooms geothermal energy for heating and cooling using recycled water in toilets Question 48 (4 points)   Saved What are characteristics of sustainable production? (Check all that apply.) Question 48 options: just-in-time manufacturing large warehouses for product storage resource efficiency green product design life-cycle design to include product disposal Question 49 (4 points)   What is NOT an important aspect of regional specialization in the sustainable city? Question 49 options: importing raw materials for production promoting locally developed expertise utilization of regional raw materials adapting local climate conditions all of these are important aspects Question 50 (20 points)   Biodiversity:    Explain the following statement: “Biodiversity is both essential for our existence and intrinsically valuable in its own right.” Provide specific examples to support your answer.    Please answer in less than 200 words.    (20 points) Question 50 options: Question 51 (20 points)   Sustainability:    Sustainability has been a central theme throughout our course. In your own words, how would you define “sustainability”? What does sustainability mean to you? Also, do you think that the human population is currently operating sustainably? Why or why not? Be sure to discuss at least four specific examples to support your answer.    Please answer in less than 200 words.    (20 points) Question 51 options: Bottom of Form

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