Nov 03, 2021 Uncategorized

Masters level nursing patho – HIV case study


Case Study #2

This assignment is to be completed individually, however, discussion amongst peers is recommended. The objective of this activity is to demonstrate an understanding of cellular injury, genetic alterations, and electrolyte imbalances. Explanations must be clear and concise covering all aspects of physiology and pathophysiology at the cellular, tissue, and organ level where appropriate. Each response should have 1-2 citations (preferably not the same citation if using two or more). For this case study, your textbook, videos, and posted readings should provide support in completing this assignment. Summarizing or paraphrasing content from the textbook (or any other source) requires citation and references. Items with direct quotes will not receive credit. Submit a reference of your textbook and any other sources used at the end of the activity. Use this document as a template to submit your responses. Place the response under the respective item. Submit the activity to the link available in week 4. The rubric is available via the link.

Patient Case:

A 29-year-old patient visits the HIV clinic at regular 2- to 3-month intervals for routine follow-up. The patient is currently taking tenofovir, emtricitabine, and lopinavir-ritonavir for the last 11 months. The patient is currently taking other prescribed medications. Prior to that, the patient had developed drug resistance to the initial combination regimen of zidovudine, lamivudine, and efavirenz. The patient reported concerns about a purple, brown patch on the skin of the forehead.

The patient’s medical history:

·       HIV-AIDS

·       Herpes simplex 2 to the genital area

·       Intermittent episodes of oral candidiasis

·       Anemia

·       Cytomegalovirus retinitis in right eye and has intra-ocular ganciclovir implant.

·       Previous catheter line infections

·       Hospitalized for Pneumocystis pneumonia

1. Which of the following is most likely the cause of the purple, brown patch? Provide rationale for the correct response and explain why each other response is not the appropriate one.

a. Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2)

b. Human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8)

c. Cytomegalovirus (CMV)

d. Human papillomavirus 16 and 18 (HPV 16, 18)

2. Explain how the physiological immune response differs in a patient that is immunocompetent vs. the patient reported above when infected by the selected virus from question #1.

3. Explain how the clinical presentation may differ between pediatric population and adult population when infected with the selected virus from question #1.

4. Explain the pathogenesis of how the virus infection leads to cancer development.

5. Identify 5 clinical manifestations associated with HIV-AIDS and explain the pathophysiologic phenomenon behind the manifestation development.  

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