Nov 17, 2021 Uncategorized

The impacts of social media marketing

The impacts of social media marketing to attract more tourists in uzbekistan tourism industry

2021-2 Strategic MGT (PhD)

Final Exam

A PhD Dissertation proposal is a focused document that introduces your PhD study idea and seeks to convince the reader that your idea is interesting, original and viable within the allocated study period and with the resources available. It also provides a preliminary review of the literature and proposes how the research should be carried out.

For the final exam, you will develop the PhD Dissertation proposal and present your research in the class. Since we spent enough time how to choose the research topic, how to find published research articles that are related to yours, how to start to work on the research proposal, etc. Now, you have abilities to make your own research proposal for PhD.

The purpose of a PhD proposal is to convince other academics that your research idea is viable and worth studying. Overly long proposals with unnecessary descriptive detail are normally less convincing that well written, focused, short proposals. A suggested optimal length is between 2,000 and 3,000 words, NOT counting the reference list.

These categories must be included in the research proposal.


Introduction/background (use one or the other)

Problem statement (include aim, objectives and research questions)

Literature review



[Guidelines for each Category]

1. Introduction

Your title, introduction, problem statement, aim and objectives are the most important parts of your proposal to write well because they will be read first. Your introduction should establish a broader context than your proposed topic, drawing your reader towards it by creating interest and a rationale. It should be descriptive and not contain a deeper argument (that belongs in your literature review).

2. Problem statement

Your problem statement should follow on from the broader territory established in your introduction and focus upon the actual issue you are proposing to study (known as your niche). The conclusion at the end of the last paragraph should be equivalent to your aim.

3. Literature review

Your literature review should provide your reader with the necessary background to evaluate your topic. It should be more than a sequence of paragraphs summarizing individual academic sources (known as an annotated bibliography). One approach is to organize your literature into about three themes which address wider research topics. The sources you identify will not be equally important/relevant; this should be reflected in how much you write about them.

As your word count is limited, one approach is split your literature review into subsections, starting with an introductory paragraph then followed by a descriptive paragraph and a discursive paragraph on each theme. The former should address shallower questions (such as who, what, where and when); the latter should address deeper questions (such as how and why). Finally, a discussion subsection can be provided with summarizes and combines the findings from the themes and introduces any research studies specifically relevant to your own.

A rule of thumb is to have about 25 sources in your literature review with about 7 per theme and only a few on your niche topic. It is also wise not to over-read: Try to obtain about 50 sources then select half of them.

You will need to use critical thinking in choosing your themes and selecting evidence, and critical analysis in the way that you evaluate it. For more information, see and > Functions > Writing critically.

4. Methods

Some proposals call this section the methodology (the theory of how research should be undertaken) whilst others call it the methods (the techniques and procedures used to obtain and analyze research data). The former should not discuss all aspects of methodology but focus upon key elements such as the strategy (e.g. experiment, survey, case study, ethnography or big data) along with the associated methods (Saunders et al., 2016).

The methods section is often divided into data collection and data analysis. Your proposed methods should contain some detail but not too much, backed up with an evidence-based argument that connects back to your literature review. They should be introduced cautiously in order to leave room for future changes (based on your PhD literature review). Deeper writing may include a discussion of the validity and accuracy of your data, the way your proposed methods are suggested to be applied, and any limitations.

5. References

Saunders, M., Lewis, P. and Thornhill, A. (2016) Research Methods for Business Students, 7th edn. Harlow: Pearson.

[Some Tips in Writing]

1. Fundamentals of Academic Writing

In order to write a good proposal, you will need to have a grasp of the principles of academic writing. These can be viewed as a tree (see right). The basics of academic writing are vocabulary, spelling, punctuation, grammar and sentence construction.

There are two free websites which can help this process:

  • Grammarly ( – a free application for checking grammar, spelling, punctuation and sentence construction. It can be downloaded in different formats.
  • The Manchester Academic Phrasebank ( ) provides examples of vocabulary at different stages of research writing. It can help you to vary your language, but make sure that you understand every word that you use.

2. Follow Academic Writing Style and Use Evidence

Write clearly and concisely (don’t try to impress your reader with long words or complex sentences). Avoid personal (first person) language by using the passive voice. Introduce acronyms (abbreviations for noun phrases) before you use them. Don’t use a journalistic style or colorful metaphors. Avoid rhetoric (asking questions). Avoid subjective judgments without evidence. When evaluating evidence, be cautious about the conclusions you draw so that they are consistent with the strength of the evidence you have presented. This is known as hedging. For more information, see  > Features.

All specific claims you make should be backed up with citations. Do not steal other people’s work by using their claims or ideas without correctly attributing them (this is known as plagiarism). Even if you put their claims or ideas in your own words, you still need to acknowledge them. For more information, see

3. Learn to Write Good Paragraphs

Learning to write good paragraphs is the most important lesson in academic writing. Academic paragraphs should be about 125 words long on average (or within a range of about 70 to 180 words); they should start with some kind of topic sentence then develop this topic by providing explanations and examples, then evaluating the evidence presented, drawing the topic to some kind of conclusion. Paragraphs should be coherent and contain one main point. For more information, see  > Paragraphs.

[Submission & Presentation for Grading]

  • We will have presentation on November 23, November 30 and December 7. About 10 students each week’s class
  • Your need to submit the research proposal paper (2,000-3,000 words excluding reference part) file on the day of presentation. Also, I recommend to make simple PPT and use it for presentation.
  • November 23 > November 30 > December 7

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